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Daily rehabilitation training methods of upper limb prosthesis（Prosthetic hand）
Scientists believe that hand is the most characteristic organ of human body, and human hand is the most perfect tool that nature can create. At the same time, the rehabilitation of hand amputation is also the most difficult problem in the field of prosthetic rehabilitation. Because the function of hand is obviously superior to that of lower limbs. Human fingers are very sensitive and can feel the vibration with an amplitude of only 0.00002 mm. However, there is a long way to go to achieve this effect in the rehabilitation of prosthetic hand. With the development of science and technology, the rehabilitation of hand amputees is also improved. At present, there are two main rehabilitation programs, decorative and functional. So, how can the patients with this kind of prosthesis use the prosthesis hand flexibly? Today I will tell you what I need to know in daily use.
1) Generally, as long as the cavity of the stump is suitable, the suspension device is no problem, and no training is needed, but for the first time, the wearer should learn how to wear, passively rotate the wrist and passively change the position of the fingers. For upper arm amputees, we should learn to use the passive elbow lock.
2) Cable controlled upper limb prosthesis and electric upper limb prosthesis (including EMG prosthesis) are all functional prostheses. The difference is that the former is self powered while the latter is external powered. In order to improve the use function of these artificial hands, we need correct guidance and training.
1. Prosthetic hand training
When wearing, the residual limb should be put into the access cavity first, and then the prosthesis should be put into the shoulder belt, and the order of disengaging is the opposite.
2. Manipulation training of prosthetic hand
Open and close prosthetic hand training: cable controlled prosthetic hand is to bend forward with the strength of both shoulders, and the prosthetic hand is closed with the elasticity when it is not forced. The upper arm cable control artificial hand must lock the elbow joint in order to start. The forearm EMG prosthetic hand is often used by amputees to do phantom limb movement, to stretch the wrist to control the opening of the hand, to bend the fingers, and to bend the wrist to control the closing of the hand.
(3) Prosthetic hand training: the function of the hand is a complex process of sensory feedback and muscle coordination. If the function of prosthetic hand is really required to have practical value, it must be used carefully.
The EMG prosthetic hand is driven by a micro DC motor through a gear transmission mechanism to assist the movement of the patient's hand. It is characterized in that: two EMG signal collection electrodes are arranged in the active area of the patient's arm to collect the EMG signals representing the opening and closing of the fingers, respectively, and the two EMG signals are input to the control module including the single-chip microcomputer and the motor drive circuit. The single-chip microcomputer outputs the opening and closing signals of the artificial hand, and drives the micro straight through the motor drive circuit When the flow motor rotates forward or reversely, the prosthetic hand is closed or opened through the gear transmission mechanism, so as to drive the patient's hand to open and close. Therefore, it is the most important point for flexible use of EMG prosthetic hand to correctly place the EMG sensor in the position with strong EMG signal selected by technicians.